LANGUAGE, THOUGHT AND REALITY
The Sapir/Whorf Hypothesis

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This page presents material that we will be used in our discussion of the brain and how it generates and uses language. What does this tell us about the degree to which language controls our thoughts and influences the way we look at and interpret the world? What are we likely to learn about language in the brain during the next five years?

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 LAST UPDATE: 12-13-2011      Course Home Page



ACTIVITIES AT DIFFERENT SCALES

A) The Brain 10 cm.
B) A fold of gray matter 1 cm.
C) A neuron 1 mm across
D) A dendrite 1/10 mm accross
E) Slice through neurons 1/100 mm
F) Slice between neurons 1/1,000 mm
G) Portion of synapse 1/10,000 mm

Look at brain imaging article.

 

The three main types of neurons.



The NEURON, showing SOMA (BODY), DENDRITES, AXON, SYNAPSE.



Real NEURON, showing SOMA (BODY), DENDRITES, AXON, SYNAPSE.



This shows the soma (body) of the neuron and one of the dendrites, which is studded with "spines," each topped with a synapse connecting it with another nerve cell. One form of communication between the soma and a single spine is shown in this drawing.

 

Formation of a proteosome within the dendrite spine.

 

How spines are created.

 

How three types of spines are formed.



Synaptic components.

 

Pyramidal neurons control dominance in rat society.    Read more about this.



Sodium ion channel structured to move socium ions in and out of the neuron. Similar gateways transmit other ions, neurotransmitters, and a variety of other molecules.

 

Model of the neuron showing different specialized receptors.



Schematic details of three kinds of channels.



List of known channels.



Signal propagation in the axon.



Detail of signal propagation in the axon.



NG2+ cells facilitate cross-talk.



Hippocampus and some surrounding organs.



Drawing of the hippocampus showing where some of the nerves go.



False color image of nerve connections in the hippocampus.



One way that Hippocampal wiring is mapped.



How the Hippocampus is wired to make associations.    Read article about this.



Some things to expect in the next five years.



©2011 by Charles M. Nelson
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